Parse's theory of the Incarnation (2023)

Parse's theory of the Incarnation


The theory was first published in 1981 by Rosemarie Rizzo Parse as the "man-living-health" theory. However, the name was changed to Human Being Theory in 1992 (Parse 1992). The theory argues that nursing practices aim to assess quality of life from each person's perspective. Therefore, Parse's Theory of the Incarnation offers guidelines targeting the practices of nursesDieQuality of life as lived or described by the patient. The main assumptions and themes of the theory revolve around rhythm, meaning and transcendence. The premise of meaning indicates that people are free to choose their purpose in life. Elsewhere, the rhythmicity assumption holds that human becoming co-creates rhythmic patterns of relationship in a mutual process with the environment. Finally, the theme of transcendence underscores that human becoming multidimensional transcends beyond the limits of a person with increasing possibilities. The analysis in this paper will discuss the contribution of Parse's human development theory and Jean Watson's human caring theory to the advancement of nursing practice based on the case study.

Updating the theory based on the case study

Ben and Ann's case study illustrates one of the various circumstances in which the theory can be useful to nurses. In this case, the caregiver can use the approach's guidelines to develop a plan that will ensure Ben receives maximum care. Using the elements of transcendence, rhythm, and meaning, the caregiver can successfully guide him through the stages of Parse's theory of the Incarnation. After Ann's death, the nurse's main goal is to help her husband lead a quality life and successfully get through the emotional and difficult periods. According to the theory, the first step the caregiver should consider is to understand quality of life from Ben's perspective. This can be facilitated by understanding the three elements of Parse's theory of human becoming, as Rosemarie points out.

The element of transcendence will allow the caregiver to understand that human becoming can transcend boundaries and that new possibilities are always emerging. In this case, Ann's death is beyond her husband's expectations, but this element will make it possibleDieNurse to help Ben accept the new reality. The caregiver can achieve this by comforting him and providing him with the necessary help he may need to get through the situation. The element of transcendence also suggests that an individual can continuously change to adapt to new paths. Understanding this concept will allow the caregiver to guide the patient through the process of learning new strategies that will help them lead a quality life after the tragic situation. Parse's theory of human becoming is also structured around the basis of meaning gained through life experiences. The concept allows the caregiver to understand that human becoming is open and free to choose personal goals, beliefs and values ​​for different life situations. In doing so, Nurse Ben will acknowledge the weight of the case based on his shared feelings and personal beliefs about the shooting stars.

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The theory also includes the totality paradigm, which states that human beings are made up of psychological, biological and spiritual factors. The concept relates directly to the element of rhythm, which states that human becoming forms rhythmic patterns and represents mutual coexistence with the universe through imagination and evaluation. Understanding the two concepts will allow the nurse to relate to the family's spiritual beliefs and values ​​regarding their mutual relationship with nature on the night of Jessie and Abe's deaths. Synchronizing the rhythm and relationship with the universe helps the caregiver focus on the man's mixed feelings and consider his general perceptions. The theory has also been linked to better patient-caregiver relationships (Tapp, Lavoie, & Vonarx, 2016). In the process of understanding the patient's meaning and perspectives, the bond between the two grows stronger, likely leading to positive health outcomes.

Characteristics, strengths and weaknesses

The characteristics of the person who becomes a caregiver relate to the three elements of meaning, transcendence and rhythm. Through the theme of meaning, these nurses are characterized by a deep understanding and appreciation of the patient's life perspective. These nurses recognize that personal life experiences provide a sense of one's reality. Even nurses understandDietransformative nature of humanity through the attribute of transcendence. These nurses recognize that a man can reach levels beyond his set standards and change to adapt to new avenues. Finally, these nurses also develop distinctiveness through the element of rhythm that distinguishes them from other health practitioners. They can identify and recognize the relationship patterns between their patients and the universe. Unlike other nursing theories, Parse's approach to the incarnation aims to allow nurses to see the patient's perspective rather than focus on solving the problem directly.

The strengths of Parse's theory of human development relate to its ability to distinguish nursing from other disciplines. It achieves this because it provides guidelines for healthcare and how to apply them successfully. It also differs from other theories as it can be used for educational purposes. The research framework and methods offered by this theory also facilitate and guide investigations of other nursing theories (Nursing Theory, 2011). Just like other nursing theories, it also has several weaknesses that challenge its ability to produce positive health outcomes. For example, this theory has no standardized questions or control groups, making the results less quantifiable. Therefore, it is difficult to compare and contrast the results of this theory with other nursing theories and to identify the most significant. Also, the grooming process in Parses theory is little or not used at all. Instead, the approach generalizes about patients' experiences rather than acknowledging that each patient has different and unique life experiences. Finally, the theory cannot be applied to acute, emergency, and emergency care.

Challenges in moving to the Incarnation theory

The greatest challenge facing healthcare institutions in relation to the practice of the theory is insufficient financial strength. The majority of healthcare facilities have limited resources and inadequate budgets. Hence, they tend to balance the budget by reducing their spending on wages and salaries. They do this by reducing the number of health professionals, particularly nurses, on their payrolls (Duffield, Gardner, & Catling-Paull). On the other hand, due to the reduced patient-caregiver ratio, this causes significant pressure and workload for the remaining caregivers. As a result, nurses find it difficult to effectively explore patients' perceptions and apply the appropriate model of care to them. There is a decline in nurses while the number of patients has increased, leading to massive shortages and difficulties in applying the Incarnation theory.

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understanding of transcendence

The concept of transcendence in human development theory requires a caregiver to understand that one can transform and keep up with the oncoming changes that are beyond their limitations. The process of personal transformation is crucial in determining life's meaning and purpose after an adverse encounter (Teixeira, 2008). In Ben's case, understanding the element of transcendence will enable the caregiver to provide coping intervention strategies that will enable him to lead a quality life after the death of Ann. Also, the nurse will be able to guide Ben in adapting to environmental changes and provide strategies to cope with the new ways of life. For example, the nurse must help Ben come to terms with the death of his wife and help him overcome emotional feelings and loneliness.

Jean Watson's Theory of Human Care

Nursing and caring for patients is the core concept of nursing practice. Jean Watson's theory of human care states that care is able to regenerate the vital energies of patients and increase their productivity. I would use the approach along with Parse's theory of the Incarnation in Ben's case, since both advocate consideration of the spiritual and psychological state of the patient. According to Watson, caring aims to provide protection, enhancement and preservation of human dignity. Therefore, my care plan would focus more on building trust and respect with Ben so he can open up and feel safe to share his innermost feelings. I would also be authentically present in his ministry to emotionally or physically support his positive or negative emotions (Pajnkihar, Stiglic, & Vrbnjak, 2017). In addition, I would involve him in real learning and teaching experiences related to the meaning of life and the unity of people.


Duffield, C., Gardner, G., & Catling-Pull, C. (2008). care work and care work

(Video) Parse

Time.Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(24): 3269-3274

Pflegetheorie. (2011). Parses Human Becoming Theory.'s%20model%20rates%20quality%20of,human%20becoming%20theory%E2%80 %9D%20in%201992.

Pajnkihar, M., Stiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). Das Konzept von Watsons Carative Factors and

Nursing and its (dis)harmony with patient satisfaction.PeerJ, 5: e2940

Parse, R.R. (1992). Becoming Human: Parse's Theory of Nursing.Nursing Science quarterly,

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Tapp D, Lavoie M, & Vonarx N (2016). Theory-based practice as plural interpretations: A

Case of integrations of the Incarnation theory in a palliative care setting.Promotion of quality in nursing education, 2(2)

Teixeira, ME. (2008). Self-transcendence: A conceptual analysis for nursing practice. Holistic

Nursing Practice, 22(1): 25-31


What is the theory of the Incarnation? ›

Incarnation, central Christian doctrine that God became flesh, that God assumed a human nature and became a man in the form of Jesus Christ, the Son of God and the second person of the Trinity. Christ was truly God and truly man.

What did St Athanasius say about the Incarnation? ›

Athanasius wrote, “For the transgression of the commandment was making them turn back again according to their nature; and as they had at the beginning come into existence out of non-existence, so were they now on the way to returning, through corruption, to non-existence again” (On the Incarnation, 1.4).

What is the message of incarnation? ›

The incarnation is the Christian belief that God took human form by becoming Jesus. Incarnation literally means 'to take on flesh'. For Christians, the incarnation shows that Jesus was fully God and fully human. It is an essential part of belief in the Trinity , and in many ways it forms the basis of Christianity.

What is the conclusion of incarnation? ›


The claim that God the Son Incarnate is truly human and truly divine appears to run afoul of the law of non-contradiction, which states that nothing can both be and not be at the same time and in the same respect.

What are the three facts of the Incarnation? ›

The incarnation implies three facts: (1) The divine person of Jesus Christ; (2) The human nature of Jesus Christ; (3) The hypostatic union of the human with the divine nature in the divine person of Jesus Christ. Without diminishing his divinity, he added to it all that is involved in being human.

What are two beliefs about the incarnation? ›

1. God took on the full limitations of the human condition when he became Jesus 'the Word became flesh and lived among us'– shows how much he loves the human race. 2. Jesus went through the whole cycle of a human life – shows Christians that God understands their needs.


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