Development of computer - C.S. Point (2023)

We had learned in a previous blog how inventions were made inhistory of computers. So in today's blog I will share with you about the generation of the computer.

So let's start

Generations are:

  1. First generation computer (1940-1956)
  2. Second generation computer (1956-1963)
  3. Third generation computer (1964–1971)
  4. Fourth generation computer (1971–present)
  5. Fifth generation computer (current and later)

Table of Contents

1. FIRST GENERATION COMPUTER: Vacuum tube (1940-1956)

The first generation of computers is characterized by the use of "vacuum tubes" and it was developed in 1904 by the British engineer"John Ambrose Fleming". A vacuum tube is an electronic device used to control the flow of electric current in a vacuum. It is used in CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) TV, radio etc.

Development of computer - C.S. Point (1)

The first general purpose programmable electronic computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), built by "J Presper Eckert and John V Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC was 30-50 feet long, 30 tons in weight, contained 18000 vacuum tubes, 70000 registers and 10,000 capacitors, and it required 150,000 watts of electricity, making it very expensive.

Later, Ekart and Mauchly developed the first commercially successful computer name UNIVAC (Univeral Automatic Computer) in 1952.

ExamplesisENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer),
EDVAC(Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer),
UNIVAC-1(Universal Automatic Computer-1)


  • These computers were designed using vacuum tubes.
  • The computers of these generations were simple in architecture.
  • These computers calculate data in a millisecond.
  • This computer is used for scientific purposes.


  • The computer was very expensive.
  • Very large in size.
  • It takes up a lot and takes up a lot
  • The speed of these computers was very slow
  • It is used for commercial purposes.
  • It is very expensive.
  • These computers heat up a lot.
  • Cooling is necessary to operate these computers because it heats up very quickly.

2. SECOND GENERATION COMPUTER: Transistors (1956-1963)

The second generation of computers is characterized by the use of "transistors" and it was developed in 1947 by three American physicists"John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley".

Development of computer - C.S. Point (2)

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals or open or close a circuit. It was invented in bell laboratories. The transistors become the key ingredient in all digital circuits, including computers.

The invention of transistors replaced the bulky electrical tubes of the first generation of computers.

Transistors perform the same functions as a vacuum tube, except that electrons move through instead of through a vacuum. Transistors are made of semi-conducting materials and they control the flow of electricity.

It is smaller than the first generation of computers, it is faster and cheaper than the first generation of computers. The second generation computer has a high level of programming
languages, including FORTRAN (1956),ALGOL(1958), andCOBOL(1959).

Examplesis PDP-8 (Programmed Data Processor-8),
IBM1400 (International business machine 1400-serien),
IBM 7090 (International business machine 7090-serien),
CDC 3600 (Control Data Corporation 3600-serien)


  • It is smaller in size compared to the first generation computer
  • It used less power
  • Not heated as much as the first generation computer.
  • It has better speed


  • It is also expensive and not versatile
  • still it is expensive for commercial purposes
  • Cooling is still necessary
  • Punched cards were used for input
  • The computer is used for that particular purpose

3. THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER:Integrated circuits(1964-1971)

Third generation computers are characterized by the use of"Integrated Circuits"it was developed in 1958 by "Jack Kilby". The integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on small flat pieces of semiconductor, usually known as silicon. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips called semiconductors, which drastically increased the efficiency and speed of computers.

Development of computer - C.S. Point (3)

These ICs (integrated circuits) are popularly known as chips. A single IC has many transistors, resistors and capacitors built on a single slice of silicon.

This development made computers smaller in size, low cost, large memory and processing. The speed of these computers is very high and it is also efficient and reliable.

These generations of computers have higher level languages ​​such as Pascal PL/1, FORTON-II to V, COBOL, ALGOL-68 and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) were developed during these periods.

Exampleshe NCR 395 (National Cash Register),
IBM 360,370 series,


  • These computers are smaller in size compared to previous generations
  • It consumed less energy and was more reliable
  • More versatile
  • It produced less heat compared to previous generations
  • These computers are used for both commercial and general purposes
  • These computers used a fan for main discharge to prevent damage
  • This generation of computers has increased the storage capacity of computers


  • Still, a cooling system is needed.
  • It is still very expensive
  • Sophisticated technology is required to manufacture integrated circuits
  • It is not easy to maintain the IC chips.
  • The performance of these computers degrades if we execute large applications.

4. FOURTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER: Microprocessor (1971-present)

Fourth generation computers are characterized by the use of "Microprocessor". It was invented in the 1970s and it was developed by four inventors named are"Marcian Hoff, Masatoshi Shima, Federico Faggin ogStanley Major”. The first named microprocessor was"Intel 4004"CPU, it was the first microprocessor to be invented.

Development of computer - C.S. Point (4)

A microprocessor contains all the circuitry necessary to perform arithmetic, logic, and control functions on a single chip. Because of microprocessors, fourth generation includes more data processing capacity than third generation computers of similar size. Due to the development of microprocessors, it is possible to place the CPU (central processing unit) on a single chip. These computers are also known as microcomputers. The personal computer is a fourth generation computer. It is the period when the development of computer networks takes place.

Examplesis APPLE II,
Alter 8800


  • These computers are smaller in size and much more reliable compared to other generations of computers.
  • The heating problem on these computers is almost negligible
  • No air conditioning or climate control is required in a fourth generation computer.
  • In these computers all types of higher languages ​​can be used in this generation
  • It is completely for the general purpose as well
  • cheaper
  • These computers are cheaper and also portable


  • Fans are required to operate these kinds of computers
  • It required the latest technology for the need to make microprocessors and complex software
  • These computers were very sophisticated
  • It also required advanced technology to make the ICs (integrated circuits)

5. FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (current and later)

These generations of computers were based onAI(artificial intelligence) technology. Artificial technology is the branch of computer science that deals with making computers behave like humans and let the computer make its own decision at the moment, no computer exhibits full artificial intelligence (that is, is able to simulate human behavior).

Development of computer - C.S. Point (5)

In the fifth generation of computers, VLSI technology and ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology are used, and the speed of these computers is extremely high. This generation introduced machines with hundreds of processors that could all work on different parts of a single program. The development of a more powerful computer is still ongoing. It has been predicted that such a computer will be able to communicate in natural spoken languages ​​with its user.

In this generation computers also need to use high level languages ​​like C language, c++, java etc.

Examplesare desktop computers, laptops, notebooks, MacBooks, etc. These are all the computer that we use it.


  • These computers are smaller in size and are more compatible
  • These computers are very powerful and cheaper in cost
  • It is obviously used for the general purpose
  • Higher technology is used
  • Development of true artificial intelligence
  • Advances in Parallel Processing and superconductor technology.


  • These tend to be sophisticated and complex tools
  • It pushes the limit of transistor density.

Related posts:

  1. Work process of computer
  2. Computer history
  3. 10 limitations of computer system|and its possibilities?
  4. Discuss the uses of computer system?
  5. Explain Von Neumann architecture?
  6. Explain input and output devices in a computer system
  7. What is RAM and its types?
  8. What is the difference between firmware and driver? | What is firmware and driver?
  9. What is hardware and its types


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